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Common name(s): Betta, Siamese Fighting Fish
Scientific Name: Betta splendens
Native geographical area- Thailand
Native habitat- ponds, slow moving streams, rice paddies
Maximum Size- 3 inches
Minimum Aquarium Size- 2 gallons
Natural & captive Diet- Pellets, flakes, peas, freeze dried bloodworms, and live foods
Tank zone- top
Temperament & compatibility- Males cannot be kept together, but some can live in a community tank. Females can be housed together.
Hardness range- up to 20 dGH Optimal hardness- 4
pH range- 6 - 8 Optimal ph- 7
Temperature range- 75- 85 Optimal temperature- 80
Salinity range- 0- 1.002 Optimal salinity- None required
Photoperiod- 11-12. Seasonal changes do not affect spawning
Seasonal changes critical? Not if there is a heater in the tank
Notable sensitivites- Temperature fluctuation
Hardiness & Lifespan- Hardy, 3-5 years
Physical description- Males usually have long flowing fins. They come in different tail types such at veiltail, half-moon, crown tail, double tail, and butterfly. Veil tail is the most commonly sold at petstores. Bettas come in many different colors, such as white, red, blue, green, black and more. Bettas have an upturned mouth, because they feed off the surface of the water, and they also breathe air.
<< common veiltail betta
Activity peak- 12:00 pm till 9:00 pm
Habits- If a mirror is held up to the tank males will flare at it. Some bettas also seem facinated by marbles and enjoy pushing them around their tank. Male bettas possess legendary pugnaciousness, hence the name fighting fish, and will attack each other on sight.
Spawning notes- A lot of work is required to take care of fry. Males will build a bubble nest. Under this nest the pair will perform a spawning embrace, and the resulting eggs are qucikly gathered up by the male and deposited into the nest. After the breeding is done remove the female from the tank. The male will tend to the nest, by picking up any eggs that fall out of the nest & returning them. The fry hatch in about 2 days. Remove the male when the fry are free swimming. The fry will need infusoria first, but they will soon be able to eat baby brine shrimp. The young should be separated very soon, and put into their own separate jars. Once you can determine the sex of the fry (when they are around 8 weeks old) you may be able to put some of the females together to save space. You need to feed the fry daily and inspect for any signs of disease, do small water changes frequently, and keep the air above the tank humid. Many fry are lost during the development of the Labyrinth organ if the air gets too dry, or for that matter, too moist.
Other notes- The long flowing fin trait is manmade though selective breeding, and such longfinned specimens wouldn't last very long in their native habitat. Wild B.splendens have short fins (commonly called plakats).

Credit to:
Simpte, solor-ton, and Hamm35924
 
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